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Capt. Joshua Jacob Snouffer

Capt. Joshua Jacob Snouffer

Male 1825 - 1906  (81 years)

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  • Name Joshua Jacob Snouffer  [1, 2, 3
    Prefix Capt. 
    Born 24 Feb 1825  Frederick Cnty, MD Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2, 4, 5
    Gender Male 
    AFN 2T5Z-7D0 
    Military Service U.S. Army - Mexican War 
    Occupation Business -- Milling business owner 
    Occupation Construction - Developer 
    Occupation Government - City councilman; Mayor 
    Occupation Transportation - Steamboat operator; Street railroad (street-car) system builder 
    Died 5 May 1906  Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA Find all individuals with events at this location  [2, 5, 6
    Buried Oak Hill Cem, Cedar Rapids, IA Find all individuals with events at this location  [5, 7
    Person ID I32  SnoufferCampbell
    Last Modified 19 Feb 2012 

    Father Jacob Schnauffer / Snouffer,   b. Abt 1781, Frederick Cnty, MD Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 10 Apr 1852, Frederick Cnty, MD Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 71 years) 
    Mother Elizabeth Arter / Arthur,   b. 16 Dec 1786, MD Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 20 Aug 1862, Frederick Cnty, MD Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 75 years) 
    Married Abt 1808  [1, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13
    Notes 
    • Jim Wood writes in THE SNUFFERS, p. 80 :
      "Jacob Snouffer, [was] born about 1782. He married Elizabeth Arthur, a Catholic, 16 Dec. 1786 - 20 Aug. 1862. Jacob died 10 April 1852 and is buried in the Lutheran cemetery at Emmitsburg, Frederick Count. His wife is interred in the Catholic cemetery nearby...."
    Family ID F19  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Mary Ann Shankle,   b. 28 May 1828, Maryland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Mar 1915, Yellow Springs, Frederick Cnty, MD Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 86 years) 
    Married Type: Never married  [14
    Notes 
    • J.J. Snouffer and Mary A. Shankle, the parents of Richard Thomas Snouffer, did not marry. Rather, J.J. married another woman and left the state of Maryland.

    Children 
     1. Richard Thomas Snouffer,   b. 25 Jan 1849, Frederick Cnty, MD Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1 Apr 1924, Baltimore, Baltimore Cnty, MD Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 75 years)
    Last Modified 19 Feb 2012 
    Family ID F579  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Ann Jemima White,   b. 17 Aug 1830, Frederick Cnty, MD Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 Apr 1916, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 85 years) 
    Married 10 Apr 1849  Frederick Cnty, MD Find all individuals with events at this location  [6, 15
    Marriage License Date 17 Apr 1849  Frederick Cnty, MD Find all individuals with events at this location  [16
    Children 
     1. John R. Snouffer,   b. Abt 1849, Indiana Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown
     2. Anna Elizabeth ("Annie") Snouffer,   b. 23 Mar 1850, Frederick, MD Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 11 Aug 1919, Portsmouth, Scioto Cnty, OH Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 69 years)
     3. Clara Regina Snouffer,   b. 26 Jun 1851, Maryland Find all individuals with events at this location
     4. Unknown Snouffer,   d. Bef 1910
     5. Unknown Snouffer,   d. Bef 1910
     6. Unknown Snouffer,   d. Bef 1910
     7. Mary Ellen Snouffer,   b. 10 Oct 1856, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 16 Mar 1898, Chicago, Cook Cnty, IL Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 41 years)
     8. Frances ("Fanny") Arthur Snouffer,   b. Aug 1857, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 12 May 1941, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 83 years)
     9. Joshua J. Snouffer,   b. Abt 1859, Iowa Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Bef 1864  (Age ~ 5 years)
     10. Uknown Snouffer,   d. Bef 1910
     11. Unknown Snouffer,   d. Bef 1910
     12. Joshua Jacob ("Bud") Snouffer, Jr.,   b. 16 Apr 1864, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 14 Nov 1917, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 53 years)
     13. Unknown Snouffer,   d. Bef 1910
     14. Lucy Virginia ("Puss") Snouffer,   b. Apr 1868, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 17 Feb 1954, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 85 years)
     15. Sarah Snouffer,   b. Mar 1870, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Bef 1880  (Age ~ 9 years)
    Last Modified 28 Nov 2010 
    Family ID F179  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Photos
    Joshua J. Snouffer
    Joshua J. Snouffer
    J. J. Snouffer Scrapbook, p. 4
    (edited by Wm. C. Snouffer)
    Joshua J. Snouffer
    Joshua J. Snouffer
    J. J. Snouffer Scrapbook, p. 3
    (edited by Wm. C. Snouffer)
    Joshua J. Snouffer
    Joshua J. Snouffer
    Courtesy of C.A. Laurance, Pioneer Days in Cedar Rapids (1936)
    Joshua J. Snouffer
    Joshua J. Snouffer
    Photo from J. J. Snouffer Scrapbook, p. 6
    (edited by Wm. C. Snouffer)

  • Notes 
    • According to J. Brigham, IOWA: ITS HISTORY AND ITS FOREMOST CITIZENS, pp. 1209-1212 (1915) [which borrowed heavily from Luther A. Brewer & Barthinius L. Wick, HISTORY OF LINN COUNTY IOWA, vol. 2, pp. 694-697 (Chicago; Pioneer Publishing Co.: 1911)] :
      "The [Snouffer] family is of German lineage and the father of Captain Snouffer followed farming in the vicinity of Baltimore, Maryland, where the son was born February 24, 1825." He attended St. Mary's College, Emmitsburg, Md., and Notre Dame [a Catholic school in Baltimore]. He became a carpenter, but joined the Army during the Mexican war. "A Mexican bullet struck him in the head November 9, 1847. The ball was never extracted and in later years caused him much suffering.*** Following his return from Mexico and his recovery in health Captain Snouffer was united in marriage to Miss Anna White, a native of Maryland, and to them were born fifteen children...." The family came to Iowa in 1852. Again he was a carpenter, but then entered the milling business, associating with W.A.Watrous & Co., and was president of the Iowa Millers Assoc. for many years. He was instrumental in getting the Iowa & Nebraska R.R. to build a line through Cedar Rapids, developed the city waterworks, and helped build the city's street car lines [activities which generated considerable litigation, as discussed below]."
    • T.J.C. Williams & F. McKinsey, HISTORY OF FREDERICK COUNTY MARYLAND, pp. 265-66 (1910), report that in Feb. 1847, Capt. Richard T. Merrick formed a corps of volunteers to fight in the Mexican War; J.J. Snouffer was a corporal. According to IOWA: ITS HISTORY (Ibid, p. 1210) he eventually became a sergeant. Wm.L. Alexander, EX-SOLDIERS, SAILORS AND MARINES LIVING IN IOWA, p. 740 (State Printer, Des Moines, IA, 1886), lists J.J. as having served as a Private in Company H, 4th Regiment Dragoons, but there are records showing that he was a sergeant.
    • The marriage date of 10 April 1849 was reported in The Examiner of 16 May 1849: "Snouffer, Joshua J. L. m. Ann Jemima White, both of Frederick, 10 April, Rev. Mr. Stonestreet." See, M. F. Hitselberger, "Marriages and Deaths from The Examiner, 1849," vol. 11, Western Maryland Genealogy, p. 123 (Jul 1995). Confusingly, however, the marriage license date is 17 April 1849, according to M. Myers, MARRIAGE LICENSES OF FREDERICK COUNTY, 1841-1865, pp. 218, 251 (1988).

      In 1848 J.J. Snouffer apparently impregnated a Frederick, MD, prostitute, Mary Shankle, and she gave birth to Richard Thomas Snouffer on 25 Jan. 1849. (See Richard's Notes for details.) It is not known whether J.J.'s wife-to-be, Ann White, knew about this; nor is it known whether that offspring was part of the reason why J.J. left Maryland for Iowa in 1852.
    • The title "Captain" probably came from the fact that for a short while J.J. was an Iowa steamboat captain. According to Wm.J. Petersen, IOWA -- THE RIVERS OF HER VALLEYS, pp. 133-134 (1941): "[S]teamboating on the Cedar [River] was destined not to stop at Cedar Rapids. The voyages of the Black Hawk to Waterloo form a unique chapter in the story of steamboating on the interior waterways of Iowa. Built at Cedar Rapids in 1858, this historic craft was originally named the Export. She was constructed by T. G. Isherwood from lumber cut in what is now Bever Park, Cedar Rapids. The Export made a trial trip on September 30, 1858, in command of J. J. Snouffer. On the following day she left for Waterloo with sixty tons of freight. Upon her arrival the captain gave a free excursion. The Export continued in the trade until ice began to form in mid-November. During the ensuing winter the Export was entirely remodeled and [re]named the Black Hawk."
    • Additional nautical history is conveyed in THE HISTORY OF LINN COUNTY, p. 492 (Western Historical Co., Chicago: 1878):
      "In 1858, W.D. Watrous, J.J. Snoffner [sic], W.W. Smith and Mr. Stanley built the steamer 'Black Hawk,' at this place [Cedar Rapids], for the purpose of navigating the Upper Cedar River. The work was done by Freeman Smith, at that time a well-known mechanic of the city. During the years 1859-60, the boat made regular trips between Cedar Rapids and Waterloo.... The boat made money for its owners during these two years. In 1861, it was sold to the [U.S.] Government and taken South, and was used as a Government supply boat during the war, on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers."
    • A somewhat different version of these events is recounted in Luther A. Brewer & Barthinius L. Wick, HISTORY OF LINN COUNTY IOWA, vol. 1, pp. 428-429 (Chicago; Pioneer Publishing Co.: 1911):
      "*** Early in 1858, T. G. Isherwood came from Brownsville, Pennsylvnaia, the son of a boat builder, and he set to work to build the first boat of any size for river traffic. It was built for Freeman Smith & Co., and nearly all the lumber was sawed by Snouffer & Watrous and came of of Bever Park. [The boat] made its trial trip in September 30, 1858. It was a stern wheeler, single deck, 125 feet long, 125 tons burden, called the 'Export.' ***
      " *** During the winter [1858-1859] the 'Export' was sold to J.J. Snouffer and W.D. Watrous. It was remodeled, called the 'Blackhawk,' and on March 16th made it first trip to Waterloo, with J.J. Snouffer as captain and George A. Ohler as chief carpenter. Arriving at Vinton, they were unable to get under the bridge, and threatened to destroy it. A council of war was held and it was finally decided to elevate one span of the bridge about four feet, and Ohler superintended the work. Mr. Snouffer tells me that the biggest business the steamer did was on June 15th, when he carried 107 passengers at $5.00 a head for a round trip for the Cedar Rapids celebration, including board and lodging. He made in all, twenty-nine trips, and during this season, free of all expenses, netted the owners $2,000 [About $53,260 in 2015 dollars]. The 'Blackhawk' as remodeled, was 110 feet long by 19 feet wide, and had two rows of berths on each side, and accommodated 24 passngers, besides a crew of seven people.... [The boat was sold, and resold to others, and then] the boat was sent south and was sold by the owners to the government for $6,000 during the war, and was used for carrying provisions for soldiers on the Tennessee And Cumberland rivers...."
    • Returning to THE HISTORY OF LINN COUNTY, p. 526 (Western Historical Co., Chicago: 1878), the authors discuss the Cedar Rapids Mills which "were established in 1845, by Alexander Ely, and were operated by him until 1849... [when the mill was sold to a new owner and then others until it was] sold to its present owners, Watrous & Snouffer, in 1871. The mill is a three-story brick structure.... Four men are employed, and there are manufactured 150 barrels of flour per day. The mill was rebuilt and remodeled in 1876-77. Their sales are principally in Cedar Rapids and vicinity." Later in the book (Ibid, p. 679), J.J. is listed as a "miller."
    • PORTRAIT AND BIOGRAPHICAL ALBUM OF LINN COUNTY, IOWA, pp. 644-645 (Chapman Bros., Chicago: 1887), states: "J.J. Snouffer is closely connected with the Merchant Mills of Cedar Rapids, and a member of the firm of W.A.Watrous & Co. *** He has been Overseer of the Poor and Township Trustee, a member of the City Council of Cedar Rapids and acting Mayor. He was prime mover in establishing the Water-Works, and Street Railroad, and was connected with the Iowa State Agricultural Society as Vice-President and otherwise for 16 years. He has been president of the Iowa Miller's Association since 1870, and also President of the Miller's Association Insurance Company of Iowa.***"
    • Another source reports:
      "Few men were more influential in shaping the destiny of Cedar Rapids than Joshua J. Snouffer, a Marylander.... He helped build and was a partner in running the Watrous mill; one of the builders of the Northwestern Railroad, he laid out Blairstown and Belle Plaine. For more than fifty years he lived in the house at 108 5th Street SE. where he ate his first meal in Cedar Rapids and where in 1904 [sic] his last rites were said. He served the city and county in various official capacities for many years." J.S. & F.G. Murray, THE STORY OF CEDAR RAPIDS, p.77 (1950).

      "Laying out" of Blairstown was not without controversy -- J.J. and Watrous had to sue Blair in order to require him to follow through with the sale of the land that became "Blair's Addition" to the village of Blairstown. See the Iowa Supreme Court opinion in the case of Watrous & Snouffer v. Blair, vol.32, Iowa Reports, p.58 (1871).

      J.J. Snouffer was active in Cedar Rapids politics. In 1856, 1857, 1858, 1866, 1867, 1870, 1871, 1877, and 1878 he was elected as an Alderman. THE HISTORY OF LINN COUNTY, pp. 493-495 (Western Historical Co., Chicago: 1878). Also see Luther A. Brewer & Barthinius L. Wick, HISTORY OF LINN COUNTY IOWA, vol. 1, pp. 359-365 (Chicago; Pioneer Publishing Co.: 1911).
    • According to Charles Laurance, "J.J. Snouffer was the 'smoothest' politician of that early day. He possessed a natural shrewdness lacking in many others that enabled him to secure the passage of numerous measures regardless of any opposition that was offered. On one occasion Mr. Snouffer, against the advice of his friends and his own financial interests, supported the erection of a new bridge across the river at Third Avenue...." C.A. Laurance, PIONEER DAYS IN CEDAR RAPIDS, 1860-1880, p. 76 (1936).
    • In 1860 the census listed "Joshua J. Snouffer," 34, a farmer, born in Pennsylvania [sic], living with his wife "Angelina," 31, born in Maryland; and children: "John R," 11, born in Illinois [sic]; Ann E, 10, b. in Maryland; Mary C, 6, and Fanny A, 3, both b. in Iowa; and son Joshua J, 1, born in Iowa. Also living with them was Ann White, 50, born in Maryland (presumably J.J.'s wife Ann's mother), and two young men, perhaps hired hands. 1860 U.S. Census, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA (M 653, Roll 332, stamped p. 446, written p. 114).

      The 1870 census shows "Johsua" J Snouffer, 45, his wife "Ann J," 40, and children: Anna E, John R, "May E," Fanny A, Joshua J, "Lucy D" [Virginia], and baby Sarah. Daughter Frances was not at home the day of the census, but their cousin Samuel was. 1870 U.S. Census, 1st Ward, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA (M 593, Roll 405, stamped p. 127).

      The 1880 census lists "Snouffer, J. J." as a 54 year old "Miller," born in Pennsylvania [sic], living with his wife Ann J., 51, and children Mary E., 24; "Fanne" A, 22; Joshua J. Jr, 16; and "Lucy V," 12. 1880 U.S. Census, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA (T 9, Roll 351, stamped p. 73B).

      The 1900 census records J.J. as 74 years old, born Feb. 1826 [sic], and married 51 years to his wife Ann J, 69. Living with them are daughter Virginia, 32, grandson Archie Harris, 14, and a servant. 1900 U.S. Census, 1st Ward, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA (T 623, Roll 444, stamped p. 10).

      The 1905 Iowa State Census lists "Josh J.," "Anna J.," and Virginia Snouffer living at 112 S. 5th Street. Grandson "Archibald" Harris lived next door at 108 S. 5th Street. 1905 Iowa State Census, Cedar Rapids, Linn Cnty, IA (Roll IA-96; lines 114-227).
    • Luther A. Brewer & Barthinius L. Wick, HISTORY OF LINN COUNTY IOWA, vol. 1, p. 334 (Chicago; Pioneer Publishing Co.: 1911), wrote:
      "It is entirely proper to make some mention in these pages of Captain Joshua John [sic] Snouffer, who came to Cedar Rapids in 1852 when the city contained less then 400 people. He too had an intimate knowledge of what it meant to be a pioneer.
      "Captain Snouffer was born in Maryland Feburary 24, 1825, and though he was a loyal citizen of Iowa he never ceased to love his native state, nor did he ever forget its history, its traditions, and its people. He entered the Mexican war where he was wounded in the head on the field of battle on November 9, 1847. This wound troubled him all the remaining days of his life. At the time he was wounded he was first sergeant of a company of dragoons, and on several occasions had commanded a company.
      "As a member of the firm of W. D. Watrous & Company he was closely identifed with the milling industry of Cedar Rapids. He superintended the erection of "the brick mill" in 1875. With J. J. Child he was the joint author of the city's charter. He took an active part in the building of the Iowa & Nebraska Railroad, now the Northwestern. He was a prime mover in establishing the water works, and was one of those who gave the city its first street railway. At various times he was a member of the city government both as alderman and mayor. He was a skilled parliamentarian, and an honest man in every sense of the word."
    • J.J.'s bridge- and road-building activities generated considerable litigation. As a member of a committee created to oversee construction of a bridge across the Cedar River, he was sued in Wrought Iron Bridge Co. v. Greene, vol. 53, Iowa Reports, p. 562 (1880). In a personal injury case, he was a witness about when City inspectors examined a culvert under a road where the injury occurred. Tathwell v. City of Cedar Rapids, 114 Iowa 180 (1901). J.J. Snouffer v. Cedar Rapids & Marion City Railway Co., 118 Iowa 287 (1902), was a dispute with a streetcar company over moving rails from the side to center of the road; the court held that the city could require the company to move the tracks.

      In a series of cases, J.J. and his company were sued for shoddy road construction work in Tipton, IA. Wingert v. Snouffer & Ford, 134 Iowa 97 (1907); Snouffer & Ford v. Grove, 139 Iowa 466 (1908); Snouffer & Ford v. City of Tipton, 150 Iowa 73 (1911); Snouffer & Ford v. City of Tipton, 161 Iowa 223 (1913).

      Ann J. Snouffer v. Chicago & North-Western Rwy Co., 105 Iowa 681 (1898), was a case in which the Snouffer family won an award, upheld on appeal, when the railway companies condemned their land for a depot. In J.J. Snouffer v. Kinley, 96 Iowa 102 (1895), J.J., as surety on a note for a loan, failed to record his security interest and thereby lost it when it was attached by the sheriff to satisfy a judgment against the original borrower. In Gevers v. Farmer, 109 Iowa 468 (1899), J.J. had loaned money to another person involved in the liquor business who was sued by a creditor. And in Fullerton Lumber Co. v. Snouffer, 139 Iowa 176 (1908), a suit on a promissory note, the court held that whether his wife Ann was a surety for the note was a question to be decided by a jury; for further discussion, see Benson v. Alleman, 220 Iowa 731 (1935).
    • In addition to, or perhaps as part of, various business and political activities, J.J. probably was a drinking man. He loaned money to various people involved in the liquor business, as noted above. And in the case of State v. Schultz, 79 Iowa 478 (1890), J.J. was called to testify about the "soft cider" he was served : "The B.B., or soft cider, that I got at Schultz's saloon was, I suppose, beer. It tasted something like it, and, according to my best judgment, I believe it was."
    • As might be expected, J.J.'s estate was involved in litigation. E.g., Beatty v. Ann J. Snouffer, 164 Iowa 746 (1914)(claim against estate for money that J.J. was holding for plaintiff, sustained); Amidon v. Snouffer, 139 Iowa 159 (1908)(involved disputes among his children over assets of the estate).
    • Regarding the family of Joshua Jacob and Ann (White) Snouffer, Bertha Ina (Newens) Snouffer -- wife of JJ's grand-nephew William D. Snouffer -- wrote:
      "I don't know too much about the family of Joshua Jacob Snouffer, born 2-24-1826 [sic]. His wife was Ann, and their children were:
      "Annie -- it must have been Harris (her son Archie Harris) and then Stevens [here she is confusing Annie and her sister Mary Ellen].
      "Sis -- Frances Benjamin (one son, died young: Park Benjamin).
      "Puss - Virginia McClelland - no children.
      "Bud - Joshua Jacob Jr. - 4 children.
      "There may have been others; I don't know.... Annie [sic: Mary Ellen] ... lived and died in Chicago.
      "Arthur Stevens (a... son of Annie's) - was here for Puss's funeral.
      "Bud's son John Stanley Snouffer jr -- was also known as "young Bud" - who was married to Mayme Fransen. Mayme and Stanley had one daughter, Mary Ann -- Stanley drank so much that Mayme divorced him early in their marriage.
      "His father, the original Bud, was the one ... who owned and operated the quarry down by the packing house. His children were Helen, John Stanley (Young Bud), Phyllis, Gervaise...." (Undated letter from Bertha Ina (Newens) Snouffer to her son Robert Snouffer, probably in the early 1970s; punctuation added for clarity.)

  • Sources 
    1. [S2] Bertha Newens|, Bertha Ina (Newens) Snouffer, "Newens & Snouffer Family Records", (Bertha Ina (Newens) Snouffer; unpublished charts; created abt 1960; revised abt 1970; original charts possessed by Wm.C.Snouffer).

    2. [S37] Ancestry Tree - Mann, James D. Hug, "Mann_2011-12-09", (Ancestry.com, Public Member Tree, Online database, https://www.ancestry.com/family-tree/tree/33020986/listofallpeople/ ).

    3. [S83] Cem - Oak Hill, Cedar Rapids, IA|, Genealogical Soc'y of Linn Cnty, IA, "Linn County, Iowa Cemeteries, Oak Hill", (Genealogical Society of Linn Cnty, IA, PO Box 175, Cedar Rapids, IA 52406 (2001)).

    4. [S81] IA Foremost Citizens|, Johnson Brigham, IOWA: ITS HISTORY AND ITS FOREMOST CITIZENS, (Chicago, IL; S.J. Clarke Pub. Co.: 1915), p.1209.

    5. [S83] Cem - Oak Hill, Cedar Rapids, IA|, Genealogical Soc'y of Linn Cnty, IA, "Linn County, Iowa Cemeteries, Oak Hill", (Genealogical Society of Linn Cnty, IA, PO Box 175, Cedar Rapids, IA 52406 (2001)), p. 170.

    6. [S81] IA Foremost Citizens|, Johnson Brigham, IOWA: ITS HISTORY AND ITS FOREMOST CITIZENS, (Chicago, IL; S.J. Clarke Pub. Co.: 1915), p.1210.

    7. [S81] IA Foremost Citizens|, Johnson Brigham, IOWA: ITS HISTORY AND ITS FOREMOST CITIZENS, (Chicago, IL; S.J. Clarke Pub. Co.: 1915), p.1212.

    8. [S19] Arters of Fountain Valley - 1|, M.Jane (Free) Fisher & Richard P. Arter, The Arter/Arthur Family of Fountain Valley [MD] , (X Press Print, Lisbon, OH : 1979 [LDS fiche # 6046535]), p. 13.

    9. [S656] Arters of Fountain Valley - 2|, M. Jane (Free) Fisher & Richard P. Arter, The Arter/Arthur Family of Fountain Valley [MD] (2d ed 1989), (published by Richard P. Arter to CD-ROM : 2003 [copy available from Sue Mullins, 19614 Eagle Ridge Ln, Porter Ranch, CA 91326-4021, and at Genealogical Forum of Oregon, Portland, OR]), ch. 00, p. 29.

    10. [S10] Snuffers|, James L. Wood, Jr., THE SNUFFERS, (BJW Printers; Beckley, WV : 1989), 929.273Sn72., p.80.

    11. [S20] DAR - Horn, Daughters of the American Revolution, "DAR Membership Application of Mabelle Petree Horn, Nat'l # 528923 (18 Oct 1967)", (National Society, 1776 D St NW, Washington, D.C. 20006).

    12. [S12] Ott|, Richard H. Ott, Jr., "Ott Genealogy" : Oct 2003, (Richard H. Ott, Jr., 4208 Elsa Terr, Baltimore, MD 21117; DickOtt@aol.com).

    13. [S21] Arthur/Oerther|, Powell, Laurel S., "Arthur / Oerther Family", (Vol. 16, The Carrolltonian, p. 6; Carroll County Genealogical Society, Westminster, MD : 1996-1997), p. 30.

    14. [S175] Hoover, Susan|, Susan Brown & David Hoover, Email Reports: "Ginneman.txt"; "Gertrude.pdf"; "BFSnouffer.pdf", (Susan & David Hoover, Email: Toky@aol.com : 12 May 2004; and subsequent Email reports).

    15. [S725] Newspaper - Examiner - 1 |, M. F. Hitselberger, "Marriages and Deaths from The Examiner, 1849", (vol. 11, Western Maryland Genealogy, p. 123 (Jul 1995)).

    16. [S52] Myers Marriages 3|, Margaret E. Myers, MARRIAGE LICENSES OF FREDERICK COUNTY [MD], 1841-1865, (Family Line Publications, Westminster, MD : 1988), pp.218, 251.